The Library's large and valuable historical collections contain unique research materials from the 17th to the 19th centuries in many languages. The oldest manuscripts date back to the 11th century. The art collections include original works of graphic art by Albrecht Dürer, Lucas Granach the Younger, Lucas van Leyden, Rembrandt van Rijn and others.
The Library's digitized collections comprise rare books, manuscripts, photographs, historical dissertations, and early Estonian newspapers and are accessible through the ESTER online library catalogue. The Library also offers the EOD service.
In 2010, the Library had more than 51,000 users, about 21,000 physical visits and 2.6 million virtual visits.